We’re going to look at cannabis and cognitive thinking, then move on to addiction and the gateway drug theory. I’m sure many people may have heard of the 1936 film “Reefer Madness”. People in the film are acting out what ‘real life’ is like for marijuana smokers. It depicts people as violent, sex-crazed criminals. As much as this film is a joke to some, others think of it to be true.
Exactly what –does- marijuana do to the brain? We already know about our CB1 and CB2 receptors, but let’s focus less about the small stuff, and more about the large stuff. In “The Pot Book”, there are several studies they talk about that have been done, with similar results, and sometimes different results. I will paraphrase (like I have been doing this entire time), what went down.
Usually the studies were between infrequent and frequent marijuana users. The infrequent users showed an increase in risky behavior, decrease in ability to perform tasks normally, and that memory was affected. In frequent users, cognitive functioning was not affected, but memory was.
Reasons for such findings would be that there is a tolerance that is built up with smoking. It’s like the age-old question of who would you, if you had to, get into a car with: Somebody that just had his or her first drink, or an alcoholic? Obviously the best choice would be the alcoholic because they know how to drive under the influence. Of course, one should never drink and drive, and I’m not telling anybody to ever get in a car with somebody who has been drinking.
These tests were done in 2005 by Lane and colleagues, in 2001 by Hart and colleagues, and in one study done in 2007 by Vadhan and colleagues showed that the speed of tasks the users were asked to perform were slowed, but not impaired. In 2006, Nordstrom and Hart did the study that proved that tolerance played a role with cognitive functioning. A follow up study was done and still showed that infrequent users were still affected, but frequent users had little to no impairment with performing tasks.
Grant did 11 studies in 2003 that showed that the only long term-term effects were the ability to learn quickly and retain information were decreased.
These tests however, should be noted that performance was not based on IQ, mental backgrounds, or a background in education, which could make all the difference.
In 2003, Bolla and colleagues did a study to hit on those points. The studies concluded that based on IQ, scores were lower, and that those with a higher IQ weren’t effected, and sometimes scored higher than average.
In summary, infrequent users with little tolerance have less ability to function normally under the influence and have their memory and attention span affected. Frequent users also had memory issues, but were able to function somewhat to almost completely normally, sometimes better.
Let’s talk about disorders such as schizophrenia, anxiety, PTSD, bipolar, and depression.
There have been numerous studies shown that smoking cannabis can lead to schizophrenia, however, these studies were not done taking into account that perhaps the person already had schizophrenia, meaning that there is not enough evidence with enough factors taken into account to say that “Yes, cannabis causes schizophrenia.”
Tests done with students showed that students with high psychotic symptoms said that cannabis led to anxiety, but most students said that cannabis lead to relaxation. There is not enough data to say that cannabis helps with depression nor bipolar.
Addiction. Can one be addicted to cannabis? Yes. However, it is not a physical addiction, such as alcohol, and the withdrawal symptoms are mild and short lived. There is no way to die from withdrawal with cannabis.
To be an addict of cannabis, you must spend all of your time looking for the drug, focusing on the drug, have a problem, realize that you have a problem and that cannabis is enhancing it, and still proceed to smoke cannabis without trying to resolve your problem.
Usually people with underlying problems become addicted to cannabis. In the US and Australia, approx. 20% of people are unable to control their use. Meaning that a desire to stop smoking or quit smoking altogether isn’t there.
Of the 40% that try to quit, those that are unsuccessful sit at a low 16%. One in eleven people will go through cannabis addiction once in their lifetime.
So let’s say you’re going through a rough time, you use cannabis to curb your horrible emotions, and then something happens, and you stop using. After that you’re able to control your addiction to it and you now no longer focus on the drug. That’s what the 1/11 people go through an addiction once in your life means.
This doesn’t mean that cannabis is an addictive drug though. This just means that some people abuse cannabis, instead of something else, say cigarettes or alcohol.
The gateway drug theory is just a theory. The main reason people use this example is because when obtaining marijuana, sometimes you meet shady people, and you then may be introduced to harder drugs. This does not mean that cannabis leads to harder drugs, but rather environmental factors may take a role in the ‘gateway’ theory. The choice to take a harder drug is not the drugs choice, but a person’s choice (unless you’re forced to, obviously).
For more information, be sure to check out “The Pot Book”, edited by Julie Holland at the link below.
We will talk about the toxicity of marijuana and what it does to the organs in this segment.
Let’s start out with the question: How many people does marijuana –all by itself- kill? Well, the answer is a staggering Zero.
However, there are lethal doses of marijuana. In lab rats, the Letal Dose, or LD-50 is 800-1900mg/kg. In dogs and monkeys, however, there are no deaths with oral administration (9000mg/kg). Intravenous administration of the two has a LD-50 of 130mg/kg.
There is no information on inhalation, but I’m going to play it safe and assume, if they’re smoking the animals out with marijuana, they’ll die of carbon monoxide poisoning, rather than the marijuana itself.
Typically it takes about 2-3mg to get high, but there have been cases of, and yes, this statistic is in the book, of Jamaicans using 420mg to get high. These specific people had many problems from low blood pressure to kidney failure to liver problems to abdominal issues.
Let’s look at the cardiovascular system, or the heart and blood vessels. I know a lot about the heart, having a heart condition myself, so I’ll probably rant a little on this afterward.
THC enters your bloodstream, ergo it goes through blood vessels and into the heart. Smoking can lower blood pressure because you’re not allowing enough oxygen into your body, so smoking anything in general is bad. Smoking cigarettes, as we know, raises blood pressure temporarily. Smoking marijuana is a little different. Marijuana raises your blood pressure if you are “lying flat” but lowers it if you are standing up. This can lead to passing out. Don’t freak out though, you’ll regain consciousness within a few seconds, but you may be a little out of it afterward.
THC can also cause tachycardia, or a fast heart beat. For some, this is very important. If you have a heart murmur or any heart issue, this could increase risk of a heart attack, of course that doesn’t mean you will have one. However, you may get angina, which is chest pain and shortness of breath. If this is the case, you should consult a doctor about your issues, or just not smoke. Smoking anything is risky business. People with high blood pressure should avoid smoking as well, because it increases oxygen need in the heart, which also can lead to angina, and when your heart is deprived of oxygen, you can have what is known as myocardial infarction, or commonly known as a heart attack. Smoking can also lead to strokes, so be sure to know if you have any heart or blood issues.
So, basically, if you have a known blood pressure issue, or a heart issue, smoking is bad.
This doesn’t mean that marijuana is bad though, it just means that smoking is incompatible with the way your body functions. There are other ways to get high, as I previously mentioned in THC numbers and drug testing.
Let’s move on to the neurological toxicity. The obvious effects of marijuana would be “euphoria, relaxation, lack of motivation, (although not everybody is lazy on marijuana), alterations in perception, time, and intensified senses”. Each emotion depends on the dosage of marijuana one intakes. Large doses can cause unwanted side effects such as paranoia, anxiety, delusions, agitation and hallucinations (although I have yet to meet somebody who has hallucinated on marijuana). Another side effect that can be common is lethargy and drowsiness.
I know some people are weary about marijuana because there have been rumors that it can cause schizophrenia. Well, those are just rumors. Marijuana doesn’t cause schizophrenia, but it can bring it out in some people, if they already had it in the first place. There is no solid evidence that it causes schizophrenia. However, if you do have a predisposition to it, say, your father or grandfather has it; the best option is to refrain from smoking until you are sure you don’t have it.
Usually schizophrenia shows itself in the mid to late teen years, although it can show up earlier or later.
Let’s go over what marijuana does to the pulmonary system. Marijuana contains tar and carcinogens, but it does not contain nicotine, as some people may believe. Chronic use of marijuana can lead to bronchitis. Do not swallow smoke, as it is bad for your organs.
Does smoking marijuana cause cancer? Well, from the many studies done, and out of “64,000 patients”, none of them showed signs of cancer, as opposed to tobacco users. Another case study was done where 1000 people with “lung or upper aerodigestive tract cancers” to 1000 controls with no cancer, and there was no link between marijuana use and cancer.
Why could this be? Well, there are nicotine receptors in the lungs, and when these receptors bond with nicotine, they do not die off immediately, but rather get sick and may not die. There are no cannabinoid receptors in the lungs, causing cells to die off and create new cells. Damaged cells make cancer more likely, but since with marijuana, cells die off and new ones are formed, cancer isn’t likely to form. This probably the reason as to why marijuana smokers, opposed to cigarette smokers, do not get cancer.
Another reason is because, as we read, cannabinoids reduce inflammation and tumor growth. Nicotine cannot do this.
What about COPD, or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease? In a study between cigarette smokers and cannabis smokers and non-smokers, cigarette smokers had the most obstructed airways, but there was no significant difference between a marijuana smoker and a non-smoker. However, this does not mean that cannabis doesn’t lead to COPD, only that it may not lead to COPD.
Marijuana still can cause lung problems such as redness, swelling, and mucus. Cells in the lungs, when looked at by a bronchoscope (an instrument that goes into the lungs to check for abnormalities), cells looked like cancerous cells, but because THC is an anticarcinogen it “might have saved regular users from developing lung cancer”.
“Wait a minute; you said that there are carcinogens in marijuana!” There are, but they’re not cancer causing.
There is a chance you may catch the flu, or bronchitis if you are a regular marijuana user, because smoking anything is bad and lowers your immune system.
Pregnancy. I really shouldn’t have to go over this, because you shouldn’t do –any- drugs while pregnant, but I will. Pregnancy and smoking marijuana can be hazardous to your baby’s health. THC enters the placenta and goes into the baby’s bloodstream, and this may cause premature babies, or smaller babies at the time of birth. Just don’t smoke if you’re pregnant.. It’s that simple.
Lastly I will talk about something called Cyclical Hyperemesis. This is a condition where a smoker will have bouts of nausea, vomiting, and gagging. This condition also can create abdominal pain. This typically is a problem developed by chronic smokers, although “its existence as a legitimate diagnosis is still controversial.”
So basically, smoking is bad for your lungs, as everybody in the world already knows, and you take a risk for your health when you smoke. There are other ways to use marijuana, in a healthier, safer manner, which would be vaporizing and edibles.
In my opinion, these risks one takes with marijuana are their own business, and the government should have no say in whether or not one can or cannot smoke marijuana. This isn’t like heroine where one can die from an OD, or cocaine where one becomes a crazed coke addict. (no hate) That’s just my opinion.
For more information, be sure to check out “The Pot Book”, edited by Julie Holland at the link below.
Let’s start off with how marijuana can get into your body. You can smoke marijuana, consume marijuana food, or vaporize marijuana. (In here they use an IV method, which is a stupid way, because it can make you sick, and there’s really no point to go that far).
When smoking marijuana, different ways of smoking it can give you different amounts of THC. A joint, which is like a marijuana cigarette, contains roughly 0.5-5 % THC. Hashish contains about 2-20 %, and hashish oil contains from 15-50% THC. And that’s just the amount of THC, that’s not the amount going into your bloodstream. If one were to smoke a joint, the amount of THC inhaled could range from 20-70%. When ingested orally, more THC can be absorbed.
Once absorbed, it is rapidly distributed throughout the body via the bloodstream. THC is a “lipophilic” molecule, meaning that it may bind to fatty tissues (heart, brain, liver, kidneys).
Now, I have to put in my own opinion here, because I watched a video about why marijuana was bad, and this was a reason they used (this and lung issues). Basically, a SUPER DUPER thin layer forms on the top of fatty tissues. This was reasoning as to why we should not smoke. And I must say, if this is a reason we shouldn’t smoke, then shouldn’t there be a ban on fatty foods that gives us huge layers of fat? Just (super) saiyan’.
THC is excreted mainly in feces and urine. Seventy-two hours after absorbing the THC orally, about 50% of the THC is excreted through feces, and 15% through urine. Intravenous ingestion (through an I.V. (Don’t ever do that, it makes you sick, this was only a clinical trial)) only 25-35% leaves through feces, but remains the same at 15% with urine. After inhalation, it takes about 5 days for 80-90% of THC to leave your system.
I would like to add that this does not count hair, and that these tests were done with one administration of THC, not daily. It takes longer for THC to leave your system if you smoke often.
How long does it take to get high? Orally, it can take between 1 hour to 3 hours, and the high peaks around hour 2-4, and returns to normal after about 6 hours. After smoking marijuana, a high can be reached within seconds. THC concentration peaks at about 8 minutes, and peak high occurs within 20-30 minutes, and can last about 4 hours.
Let’s move on to a topic that everybody is interested in. Drug testing. What do they drug test for? THC metabolites. They have a longer half-life than THC. It takes about five days to get THC out of your system, but it can take up to “0.9-9.8” days to get the metabolites out of your urine. Orally and intravenously, it can take up to 55 hours to get out of your system.
What kind of test do they do? The test usually given is an EMIT assay test. EMIT stands for enzyme immunoassay technique. There are different types of EMIT tests with cutoffs ranging from 20ng/ml to 200ng/ml. Tests with lower cutoffs are more sensitive to the THC metabolites and will test you positive moreso than a test with a cutoff of 200ng/ml.
“I’m a light/heavy marijuana user, what will this do to me?”
On average, a light smoker will have to wait about a month to play it safely, while a heavy smoker may have to wait up to almost 80 days! Of course, this all depends on how much body mass you have, how much THC you consume regularly, or not regularly, and how much gets out of your body via excretion (this is why you may hear “Drink a lot of water/juice”).
For more information, be sure to check out “The Pot Book”, edited by Julie Holland at the link below.
Cannabis is dispersed throughout the world, from China, to the Himalaya’s, to numerous places in the tropics. Cannabis can be used as a drug, as food, as medicine, as fiber, and oil.
Let’s go over the biology and chemical components. Now, growing marijuana can be a complicated process, and I won’t go over how to do that, but rather briefly cover some basic ecology, and what marijuana does biologically.
There are male and female plants, as well as hermaphrodite plants. They are often wind pollinated and can reach heights up to 6 meters tall. That’s 26 feet for us non-metric heathens. Wow! Females are pollinated by males and grow buds, but if you let them sit too long, seeds will form, thus creating new plants. That’s the reproduction cycle in a nutshell.
Cannabis has two main types of strains: Indica and Sativa. There is a third type of cannabis plant, Cannabis ruderalis, a low THC plant often found in Eastern Europe and Russia.
Indica is often found in the Hindu Kush region of Asia, and the plants tend to be short and stocky. The high one receives from an Indica strain is usually a lethargic high. Usually these are the plants used for their resin.
Sativa tends to be tall and lanky looking, and it grows faster than the indica strain. These are the plants that are used for hemp fibers. The sativa strain is the type that gives you an “up” high, or a high that makes one have a racing heart and sometimes gives a person anxiety.
There are two types of growing methods for marijuana. Soil growth with natural sunlight, or hydroponic growth, where the growth of the plant is controlled, such as in a green house or indoors. One would create artificial sunlight through special lamps. This is a more experienced growing technique, and usually is done for cultivating the buds.
Let’s move along to the Endocannabinoid System. The Endocannabinoid system is the system that helps the brain and body deal with marijuana intake. Discovered by Drs. Mechoulam and Gaoni, there are two receptors in the brain that handle marijuana, often referred to as CB1, and CB2. CB1 is the receptor responsible for how the nervous system reacts, and CB2 is responsible to how the immune system reacts.
CB1 receptors are found throughout the central nervous system. The cells near the CB1 receptors are linked with memory and learning. This makes sense, because they are also found in the hippocampus, which is the part of the brain that effects your memories and learning. The cerebellum also has CB1 receptors nearby. The cerebellum controls fine motor skills (things like eyes, hand movements). Finally, there are CB1 receptors in the cerebral cortex, which governs higher learning. This explains why some people may be able to think of grandiose things while high.
The CB2 receptors are found more so outside of the brain in immune cells, which is why inflammation and pain are lessened.
We have something in our system called an endocannabinoid, or an eCB. eCB’s are not something that marijuana creates in our bodies, mind you. eCB’s are naturally occurring molecules that are just like cannabinoids. There are two types, anandamide, and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, or 2-AG. These chemicals are activated when something tells them to activate. When they are activated, the eCB’s travel “backward” and “connect” with CB1 receptors, naming the eCB’s “retrograde messengers”. Endocannabinoids also regulate blood pressure, body temperature, and digestion, among other things. The eCB system also provides protection against tumor growth. Homeostatic and therapeutic properties of eCB’s, like anxiety regulation, are controlled by CB2 receptors in immune cells that manage pain perception, and reduce inflammation and things like that.
A neuron will release eCB’s to regulate its synoptic inputs, which is a process called synoptic plasticity, which causes learning and memory to happen at a cellular level. eCB’s have neuroprotection, which means that they protect themselves from overstimulation that can damage the brain cells. Overstimulation is a factor in epilepsy and strokes, meaning that these eCB’s protect against said over activity, which is what neural experts call a “pretty awesome thing to be happening,” for your brain.
In some places of the brain, the opposite happens. Neurons can become more stimulated, a process called disinhibition. With the amygdala, for instance (the part of your brain that manages fear and sense of loss and things like that), eCB’s release allows for a person to possibly move past their emotional traumas. In fact, marijuana is used to treat Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and other anxiety-related ailments.
Fun Fact: The “sinking into your seat” effect is due to activity in your cerebellum, which is the part of your brain that controls motor functions.
So what we basically have is depending on where the THC is bonding at in your brain, it may either inhibit or disinhibit neuron activity, which is totally not a bad thing. Note that cannabinoids are also antioxidants and may help prevent Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases.
Another component is cannabidiol, or CBD. CBD is a component in plants, and also cannabis. It does not give a person a high, but it does act as an anti-inflammatory and blocks development of Type 1 diabetes.
Now I let’s go over some recent history since marijuana was made illegal. Let’s start with the 1970’s. This is about the time where America, collectively, woke up and said, “let’s find out if this drug is as bad as the govt. wants us to think.”
In 1971, the National Commission on Marijuana and Drug Abuse was formed, thanks to president Nixon. He advocated for the elimination of small non-profit and personal criminalization. This was as big as it sounded. In 1973, Oregon was the first state to decriminalize less than ½ oz of marijuana, punishable by a fine. In 1975, Alaska followed by eliminating penalties personal cultivation and possession of up to four ounces.
President Carter also was fond of decriminalization for marijuana, along with the American Medical Association, the American Psychiatric Association, the American Bar Association, and the National Council of Churches. In 1977 most states had eliminated small amounts of possession to a misdemeanor, and by 1980 eleven states had decriminalized said possession completely.
In 1978, Dr Peter Bourne, the White House drug advisor, who helped Carter move toward reform, resigned and was replaced with Lee Dogoloff. Under President Reagan, there was the whole “Zero Tolerance” program, meaning, No If’s, And’s, or But’s, you’re in trouble. Aka, Just say no to drugs, and if you don’t you’re in deep shit. “By 1983” the dangerous insecticide Paraquat was being sprayed on domestic marijuana crows, and military methods were being enforced to, “uproot cannabis plants and arrest growers in northern California.” (Holland, Foreword xii).
In 1987, Supreme Court nominee Douglas Ginsberg withdrew due to pressure when he smoked as a law professor. In 1989, under George H. W. Bush, Operation Green Merchant was put into play, in which lists of people who had ordered indoor plat growing equipment had their homes raided. Under the Bush Sr. Administration, Alaska uprooted their decriminalization standpoint and recriminalized marijuana in 1990. There was also a bill passed that suspended drivers who were convicted of marijuana possession.
Since 1971, the National Institute of Drug Abuse spent millions of dollars studying the –dangers- of cannabis. Of which their millions of dollars have failed to find solid reasons as to why cannabis is dangerous. To justify this policy, the DEA distorts the truth and ignores evidence that is pro-pot. In 1991, the DEA responded to numerous requests for studying marijuana from people with AIDS. James O. Mason, head of the Public Health Service, said that the Compassionate IND Program (helped people use marijuana as medicine) would be suspended on the grounds that it made the government’s stance on drugs look weak.
Then, in 1990, (backtracking a year) an amazing discovery was made. Two THC receptors had been found, implying that the body produced it’s own versions of cannabinoid like neurotransmitters.
Alas, they found Anadamide (anada is Sanskrit for bliss). Receptors are in the lower brain, cerebral cortex, and the hippocampus. The lower brain governs fine motor skills, cerebral cortex governs higher thinking, and the hippocampus governs memory (Maybe some things make sense now).
Thus, the endocannabinoid system was born. With the emergence of this system, we see drugs such as Marinol being produced. For those who don’t know, Marinol is marijuana in pill form, without the psychoactive high. Now, the interesting thing here is that Marinol has the same chemical structure as marijuana; it’s just in pill form.
This is a bit unfair, in my own personal opinion, to the cannabis plant.
Let’s look at some things the plant does do. Cannabis, when ingested either through inhaling or eating, relieves nausea and vomiting for cancer patients, and relieved nausea for AIDS patients on certain medicines, as well as relief for glaucoma by lowering pressure on the optic nerve.
In 1972, NORML, the National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws, tried to make marijuana legal for medical purposes. In 1986, John Lawn, the administrator of the DEA decided to hold public hearings. They lasted from 1986 to 1988 and included patients, doctors, witnesses, and thousands of pages of documents on marijuana and the medicinal benefits for it. The DEA’s own administrative law judge, Francis L. Young, agreed that marijuana should be legal and that “marijuana in its natural form, is one of the safest therapeutically active substances known to man…. One must reasonably conclude that there is accepted safety for use of marijuana under medical supervision. To conclude otherwise, on the record, would be unreasonable, arbitrary, and capricious.”
Young recommended that the plant be accepted for medical usage, and that “there is no lack of accepted safety for use of it under medical supervision, and that it be changed from a schedule I drug to a schedule II drug.”
No changes were made, and as you read, and things got worse.
Be sure to check out “The Pot Book”, edited by Julie Holland at the link below.
Now I’m not saying I endorse the use of opium, or marijuana, when I write these blogs, but only to inform you of what went down when, where, and with whom.
The history of marijuana is very complex. Okay, it’s not really that complex. Waaaay back in the day, in the times of BCE, or BC, as some may know it as; cannabis was used for religious rituals, medicinal purposes, hemp textiles, and various other things. Marijuana is mentioned in the bible, as in fact one of the ingredients to the anointing oil. This is very interesting, because Christ, or Messiah, means the anointed one. And we read that the anointment oil included “kanna-bosm” (Exodus 30:23). However, about the time when Exodus was written, we find that only priests could use said oil, even though before then it was used –and I find this quite punny- religiously.
Moving forward to more modern times, in North America we see Cannabis being used as medicine in Chinese and Japanese herb shops, as well as recreationally in and outside of opium bars.
(Now wait, what does Opium have to do with marijuana). It’s a history lesson that sets up the basis for marijuana prohibition.
The first incident of anti-drug measures comes with the Vancouver Anti-Asian riots in 1907. Basically, on September 7, 1907, white supremacists and the Asiatic Exclusion League held a mass meeting where they blamed immigrants and immigrant-sympathetic politicians for all of their troubles, like the economy and their quality of life.
They took to the streets and smashed up Chinatown. The Japanese, however, fought back and saved their portion of the town, because, Japanese people have a history of not being invaded (if you’re a history person, you’ll like this. This is not a racist joke; it’s a historical one).
The Chinese asked for compensation from William Lyon Mackenzie King, who denied compensation because he found the oriental clubs not to his liking, because he was racist.
In 1908, Vancouver, Canada passed the Anti-Opium Act, which was the very first anti-drug act. It was based on racism and fear. King noted that not just white men had taken a liking to opium, but also, women and girls. Seeing as how women and girls were property, King didn’t want said property damaged. He used race mixing and fear mongering to get the Anti-Opium Act passed, which banned only opium sales from Chinese shops (not White People’s opium shops).
The white opium store’s held behind the card of ‘medical opium’, as opposed to the Chinese’s recreational opium.
Let’s move along to Cannabis.
Cannabis was used for a lot of things from an antispasmodic to a sedative. A popular brand of marijuana medicine back in the day was called The Piso Company.
Now we’re going to dip into some hard-hitting stuff.
In El Paso, Texas, 1914, there was an ordinance passed to ‘control cannabis’. This control consisted of giving the military guns to ‘control’ the Mexican population. William Randolph Hearst, a newspaper businessperson, was able to get word out that marijuana was bad. His reasoning did not stem from knowing anything about marijuana, except that Mexicans smoked it.
Pancho Villa and his friends took over Babicora, which was Hearst’s million-acre ranch. So, in turn, Hearst took the words ‘marijuana’ and ‘hemp’ and turned his articles to look like they were the roots of his problems.
In 1930, Harry Anslinger became the head of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics. He spit out atrocities such as rape and murder and connected them to black people and drugs. Hearst took these stories and ran with them, already in the crusade against marijuana because of his ranch being taken over. Boo hoo.
But it isn’t until 1922 and 1923 when Emily Murphy, Canada’s first female judge wrote racist articles, put into a book, and called it “The Black Candle”, did marijuana prohibition begin in Canada, and take off in the US.
In 1937, the Marijuana Tax Act (which outlawed cannabis) was passed. FDR approved of this, being in cahoots with Rockefeller (getting money from him), passed. There really was no opposition to the law, because the schools of herbal medicine had been shut down, and as people are well aware of, Rockefeller held a shit ton of power (being the first billionaire and owning an oil company).
Andrew Mellon, a big time corporation owner, financed DuPont’s takeover of GM. DuPont owned chemicals that Hearst used for his papers, and here we see where this is going. The tax act which wasn’t really a tax act, but an act as the hand of death for marijuana, passed. With hemp out of the way, DuPont could lead the world with its newly discovered nylon that it could sell at a higher rate than hemp, Hearst could use his chemical papers DuPont helped make, instead of hemp paper, and hemp ethanol has no chance for us now.
And there you have it. Racism and monopoly is what keeps marijuana illegal to this day.
Be sure to check out “The Pot Book”, edited by Julie Holland at the link below.